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Base your answers to questions 1 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of Earth science. The diagram represents one position of Earth in its orbit around the Sun and 12 constellations that can be seen in the night sky by an observer in New York State at different times of the year. The approximate locations of the constellations in relation to Earth’s orbit are shown. Point A represents another position in Earth’s orbit.
Approximately how many days (d) does it take for Earth to orbit from its present position to point A?*
Due to radioactive decay, an igneous rock sample now contains one-fourth of the amount of potassium-40 that it originally contained. The age, in years, of this rock sample is approximately*
What is the approximate density of a mineral with a mass of 262.2 grams that displaces 46 cubic centimeters of water?*
Base your answers to questions 4 on the time-exposure photograph shown below. The photograph was taken by aiming a camera at a portion of the night sky above a New York State location and leaving the camera’s shutter open for a period of time to record star trails.
During the time exposure of the photograph, the stars appear to have moved through an arc of 120°. How many hours did this time exposure take?*
Base your answers to questions 5 on the map in image provided, on the table below, and on your knowledge of Earth science. The map shows a portion of the Nazca Plate under the southeastern Pacific Ocean. Plate A represents another tectonic plate. The table shows some data for islands and seamounts (undersea volcanoes that do not rise above the ocean surface) that originally formed at the Easter Island Hot Spot.
On the map in the image provided, plot with Xs the locations of the six islands and seamounts formed by the Easter Island Hot Spot. 
Base your answers to questions 6 on the topographic map in image provided and on your knowledge of Earth science. Partially drawn contour lines are shown on the southern portion of the map. Points of elevation are recorded in meters. Points A, B, C, and D represent locations on Earth’s surface. Line AB and dashed line CD are reference lines.
On the grid in the image provided, construct a topographic profile along line AB by plotting the elevation of each contour line that crosses line AB. The elevations of points A and B have been plotted on the grid. Connect all nine plots with a line from A to B to complete the profile. 
Base your answers to questions 7 on the timeline in image provided and on your knowledge of Earth science. The timeline represents the last 600 million years of geologic time. Shaded area A represents the Neogene Period.
On the timeline in the image below, accurately shade in an area to represent the entire Permian Period. 
Base your answers to questions 8 on the map in image provided, which shows elevations in feet at various points. The southern part of the map has contour lines representing elevations at 20-foot intervals. Lines AB and CD are reference lines on the map.
Calculate the gradient along line CD and label your answer with the correct units. 
Base your answers to questions 9 on the data table below, which shows the average carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in Earth’s atmosphere for specific years from 1930 to 2010. Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas in Earth’s atmosphere that contributes to global warming. The average carbon dioxide concentrations were measured in parts per million (ppm).
On the grid in the image below, construct a line graph by plotting the average carbon dioxide concentrations in Earth’s atmosphere for each year shown on the data table. Connect the plots with a line. 
Base your answers to questions 10 on the passage and data table below, which describe the exploration and characteristics of one of Saturn’s moons, Titan.
Huygens Probe Lands on Titan
The Huygens probe was carried to Saturn by the Cassini spacecraft and parachuted to the surface of Saturn’s giant moon, Titan. The Huygens probe’s landing site was littered with smooth, rounded, rocklike objects. Photographs taken of Titan’s surface show drainage channels leading to an apparent shoreline. The question is, what are they draining? One of the photographs seems to show ground fog consisting not of water, but perhaps of ethane or methane.
Approximately how many times farther is Titan from Saturn than Earth’s Moon is from Earth? 
Base your answers to questions 11 on the data table and information below and on your knowledge of Earth science. The data table shows the radioactive decay of carbon-14 and the age of fossil remains, in years (y). Part of the table has been left blank.
The carbon-14 in the fossil remains of a mastodont has undergone five half-lives of radioactive decay. Calculate the age of these fossil remains. 
Base your answers to questions 12 on the passage and data table below and on your knowledge of Earth science. The data table shows the apparent hourly change in the direction of a pendulum’s swing, in degrees per hour (°/h), for six different Northern Hemisphere latitudes.
In 1851, Jean-Bernard-Léon Foucault attached a heavy iron ball to a steel wire hanging from the high ceiling of a church in Paris to demonstrate an apparent motion caused by Earth’s rotation. This pendulum could swing freely back and forth. A spike on the bottom of Foucault’s pendulum produced straight lines in sand spread on the floor. The position of each new line appeared to gradually shift in a clockwise direction. Eventually, the pendulum returned to its original path, completing a 360° pattern in approximately 32 hours. At other northern latitudes, a Foucault pendulum will complete a 360° pattern of swing in different amounts of time. In the Northern Hemisphere, the number of degrees that a pendulum appears to change its clockwise direction of swing each hour varies with latitude.
On the grid in the image provided, plot the apparent rate of change in a Foucault pendulum’s direction of swing for each of the latitudes given in the data table. Connect the plots with a line. 
Base your answers to questions 13 on the Characteristics of Stars graph in image provided and on your knowledge of Earth science.
The star Canopus has a surface temperature of 7400 K and a luminosity (relative to the Sun) of 1413. In your answer booklet, use an X to plot the position of Canopus on the graph, based on its surface temperature and luminosity. 
Base your answers to questions 14 on the table below, on the map in image provided, and on your knowledge of Earth science. The table lists the latitude, longitude, and barometric pressure, in millibars (mb), of the center of a low-pressure system (L) as it moved across North America from March 14 to March 17. The map in image provided shows the center of this low-pressure system (L) and associated fronts on March 14. The location of the low-pressure system 24 hours later on March 15 is also indicated.
On the map in the image provided, use the latitudes and longitudes listed in the data table to plot the March 16 and March 17 locations of the center of the low-pressure system (L) by placing an X at each location. 
Base your answers to questions 15 on the data table below and on your knowledge of Earth science. The table shows the distances from Earth to the Moon for certain days during December 2010. The percent of the Moon illuminated by the Sun as seen from Earth is also given.
On the grid in the image provided, the Earth–Moon distance data from December 2 to December 12 have already been plotted. Complete the line graph by plotting the Earth–Moon distances from December 14 to December 30. Continue the line from December 12 through all nine of your plotted points.