Regents Earth Science Test Preparation Practice

    Electromagnetic Energy


    Base your answers to questions 3 on the passage and mineral table below and on your knowledge of Earth science. The table shows some properties of four minerals that display fluorescence.

    Fluorescent Minerals

    All minerals have the ability to reflect visible light. Only about 15% of minerals have an interesting physical property known as fluorescence. These minerals have the ability to temporarily absorb a small amount of electromagnetic energy and, an instant later, release a small amount of energy of a different wavelength. This change in wavelength causes a temporary color change of the mineral in the eye of an observer. The color change of fl uorescent minerals is most spectacular when the minerals are placed in darkness and exposed to electromagnetic energy shorter than visible light.

    A former zinc mine in New Jersey is one of the most famous sources of fluorescent minerals in the entire world. Zincite and willemite were two of the zinc ores mined there. It was later discovered that more than 91 minerals in this region displayed fluorescence under shortwave electromagnetic energy.

    insolation-and-the-seasons, variations-of-insolation, seasons-and-astronomy, electromagnetic-energy, standard-1-math-and-science-inquery, changing-length-of-a-shadow-based-on-the-motion-of-the-sun fig: esci12020-examw_g22.png


    Base your answers to questions 4 on the passage below and on your knowledge of Earth science.

    Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation

    In the 1920s, Edwin Hubble’s discovery of a pattern in the red shift of light from galaxies moving away from Earth led to the theory of an expanding universe. This expansion implies that the universe was smaller, denser, and hotter in the past. In the 1940s, scientists predicted that heat (identified as cosmic microwave background radiation) left over from the Big Bang would fill the universe. In the 1960s, satellite probes found that cosmic microwave background radiation fills the universe uniformly in every direction, and indicated a temperature of about 3 kelvins (K). This radiation has been cooling as the universe has been expanding.


    Base your answers to questions 5 on the diagrams below and on your knowledge of Earth science. The diagrams represent electromagnetic waves being transmitted (T) by a Doppler radar weather instrument and waves being reflected (R) by rain showers. This instrument produces computer images that show the movement of rainstorms.

    meteorology, presentation-of-weather-data, standard-6-interconnectedness, models, standard-6-interconnectedness, patterns-of-change fig: esci62015-exam_g27.png


    Base your answers to questions 10 on the data table below and on your knowledge of Earth science. The data table shows how the destruction of the ozone layer in Earth’s atmosphere has affected the amount of ultraviolet radiation reaching Earth’s surface beneath the areas of ozone destruction.

    insolation-and-the-seasons, variations-of-insolation, standard-1-math-and-science-inquery, eccentricity-rate-gradient-standard-error fig: esci12019-examw_g49.png


    Base your answers to questions 11 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of Earth science. The diagram represents a cutaway view of a flat-plate solar collector used to heat water at a New York State location.

    insolation-and-the-seasons, variations-of-insolation, standard-1-math-and-science-inquery, geocentric-model-heliocentric-model fig: esci62018-examw_g61.png