Regents Earth Science Test Preparation Practice

    Planetary Wind And Moisture Belts In The Troposphere


    Base your answers to questions 3 on the map and the passage below and on your knowledge of Earth science. The map shows four different locations in India, labeled A, B, C, and D, where vertical sticks were placed in the ground on the same clear day. The locations of two cities in India are also shown.

    reference-tables, planetary-wind-and-moisture-belts-in-the-troposphere, seasons-and-astronomy, earth-revolution, standard-1-math-and-science-inquery, geocentric-model-heliocentric-model fig: esci62016-examw_g30.png

    Monsoons in India

    A monsoon season is caused by a seasonal shift in the wind direction, which produces excessive rainfall in many parts of the world, most notably India. Cherrapunji, in northeast India, received a record 30.5 feet of rain during July 1861. During the monsoon season from early June into September, Mumbai, India averages 6.8 feet of rain. Mumbai’s total average rainfall for the other eight months of the year is only 3.9 inches.

    Monsoons are caused by unequal heating rates of land and water. As the land heats throughout the summer, a large low-pressure system forms over India. The heat from the Sun also warms the surrounding ocean waters, but the water warms much more slowly. The cooler air above the ocean is more dense, creating a higher air pressure relative to the lower air pressure over India.


    Base your answers to questions 10 on the diagram in image provided and on your knowledge of Earth science. The diagram represents a beaker of water being heated. The curved lines around letters A and B represent convection cells that have developed in the water.


    Base your answers to questions 11 on the passage and the graph below and on your knowledge of Earth science.

    Great Lake Effects The Great Lakes influence the weather and climate of nearby land regions at all times of the year. Much of this lake effect is determined by the relative temperatures of surface lake water compared to the surface air temperatures over those land areas. The graph below shows the average monthly temperature of the surface water of Lake Erie and the surface air temperature at Buffalo, New York.

    In an average year, four lake-effect seasons are experienced. When surface lake temperatures are colder than surface air temperatures, a stable season occurs. The cooler lake waters suppress cloud development and reduce the strength of rainstorms. As a result, late spring and early summer in the Buffalo region tends to be very sunny.

    A season of lake-effect rains follows. August is usually a time of heavy nighttime rains, and much of the rainy season is marked by heavy, localized rainstorms downwind from the lake. Gradually, during late October, lake-effect rains are replaced by snows. Generally, the longer the time the wind travels over the lake, the heavier the lake effect becomes in Buffalo.

    Finally, conditions stabilize again, as the relatively shallow Lake Erie freezes over, usually near the end of January. Very few lake-effect storms occur during this time period.

    meteorology, transfer-of-heat-energy, meteorology, effect-of-vertical-atmospheric-movement, meteorology, dewpoint-humidty-cloud-formation, standard-1-math-and-science-inquery, geocentric-model-heliocentric-model fig: esci82015-exam_g51.png


    Base your answers to questions 12 on the map in image provided and on your knowledge of Earth science. The map shows an imaginary continent on a planet that has climate conditions similar to Earth. The continent is surrounded by oceans. Points A through D represent locations on the continent.


    Base your answers to questions 13 on the passage and the map of South America below and on your knowledge of Earth science.

    Two South American Deserts

    South America is an excellent example of the influence that plate tectonic features have on climates. The Andes mountain range, formed by plate tectonics, is on the western edge of South America. When prevailing winds come from the southeast, which usually occurs between 0° and 30° S latitudes, rainfall is increased on the eastern side of the mountain range. The Atacama Desert lies in the rain shadow (dry area) to the west of the mountains. Farther south, the reverse pattern is found, due to different prevailing winds blowing between 30° S and 60° S latitudes. The Patagonian Desert lies on the eastern side of the Andes, between the Andes and the South Atlantic Ocean.

    reference-tables, tectonic-plates, dynamic-earth, plate-tectonics, standard-1-math-and-science-inquery, changing-length-of-a-shadow-based-on-the-motion-of-the-sun fig: esci62017-exampwr_g43.png


    Base your answers to questions 14 on the map below and on your knowledge of Earth science. The map shows areas of daylight and darkness in New York State on March 21. Six locations are labeled on the map.

    seasons-and-astronomy, earth-rotation, standard-1-math-and-science-inquery, geocentric-model-heliocentric-model fig: esci12018-examw_g50.png


    Base your answers to questions 15 on the experiment description and diagram below.

    A student was interested in how the angle of insolation affects absorption of radiation. The student took three black metal plates, each containing a built-in thermometer, and placed them at the same distance from three identical lamps. The plates were tilted so that the light from the lamps created three different angles of incidence with the center of the plates, as shown in the diagram. The starting temperatures of the plates were recorded. The lamps were turned on for 10 minutes. Then the final temperatures were recorded.

    insolation-and-the-seasons, variations-of-insolation, standard-6-interconnectedness, models fig: esci12012-examw_g38.png