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Many years ago, a scientist grew pea plants that produced wrinkled peas. The peas from these plants produced new plants that also produced wrinkled peas. The scientist concluded that something in the parent plants was being transmitted to the next generation. This discovery is now known as*
The process represented in the diagram below occurs in many cells.
The main function of this process is to*
Before they can pass from a parent cell to its offspring cells, the inherited instructions that a human cell carries must first be*
Base your answers to questions 4 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram shows a small segment of DNA taken from a gene before and after it is copied.
Changes made during the copying process are represented by * in the diagram.
The process by which a cell copies its DNA before it divides is*
Before a cell divides, an exact copy of each chromosome is made by the process of*
Base your answers to questions 6 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.
Green sea slugs are animals that live in water and have developed the ability to produce their own chlorophyll. These creatures can also pass this ability to make chlorophyll to their offspring. Once the offspring have one meal of algae, they are able to make food using sunlight. This one meal provides the baby slugs with the chloroplasts needed to make use of the chlorophyll, and they are able to produce their own food in the future.
The best explanation for why sea slugs are able to pass on this ability to make food to their offspring is that*
Brothers and sisters often have similar facial characteristics, such as nose shape or eye color, because they*
A lion cub resembles its parents because it inherits genes that produce*
A significant difference between the effects of the genetic information passed on from asexually reproducing parents to their offspring and sexually reproducing parents to their offspring is the*
Aphids, small insects that feed on the sap of plants, undergo asexual reproduction during the summer months. They produce eggs that are formed without the separation of chromosomes. These eggs do not need to be fertilized, and all of the resulting offspring are female.
The best explanation for all of these offspring being female is that*
The diagram below represents a form of cellular reproduction.
As a result of this process, offspring 1 and offspring 2 will have*
Female hammerhead sharks sometimes produce offspring by a type of asexual reproduction. These offspring*
Identify one way in which the process of growth of a human embryo is similar to the process of reproduction in a single-celled organism. *
Base your answers to questions 14 on the information and photograph below and on your knowledge of biology.
Transgenic (GMO) Tomatoes
The use of pesticides to control insects costs billions of dollars every year. Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are an attempt to reduce this cost. Tomato plants that are genetically modified can make proteins that are poisonous to the insects that feed on them. Using these GMO tomatoes would reduce the need for the chemical control of insects.
Identify the process responsible for passing the gene for insect resistance in a leaf cell of a genetically modified tomato plant on to the cells that develop from it. *
All organisms need to reproduce for the continuation of their species. Discuss the process of reproduction in humans. In your answer, be sure to:
• identify one hormone present in a female that is involved in regulating the reproductive cycle 
• state one way the nucleus of a sex cell is different from the nucleus of a body cell 
• state how the normal chromosome number for humans is maintained from one generation to the next 
• identify one action by the mother that can influence the development of the embryo and state a result of that influence *