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Researchers use a variety of techniques to learn more about the function of a specific gene in an organism. In one type of experiment, called a loss-of-function experiment, the gene being investigated is eliminated. In a gain-of-function experiment, extra copies of the gene being investigated are inserted. The cell process most directly affected in both experiments is*
Human genetic material is represented in the diagram below.
The region labeled A is made up of a section of*
The diagram below represents a portion of a molecule found in cells of the human body.
Sequences represented by the letters in this molecule enable human cells to*
A cell is represented in the diagram below.
The coded information that the cell uses to synthesize many different proteins is stored in structure*
Base your answers to questions 5 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram shows a small segment of DNA taken from a gene before and after it is copied.
Changes made during the copying process are represented by * in the diagram.
The errors indicated by * could affect a cell by*
Changing one base in a gene could have the most direct effect on the*
DNA is able to control cellular activities most directly by regulating the process of*
The expression of a trait is directly dependent on the*
The colors and scents of plants attract helpful insects and repel insects that feed on them. The production of the proteins that provide these colors and scents is the direct result of the*
All the information necessary for growth, development, and eventual reproduction of sexually reproducing organisms is present in*
Which organic compounds would be the best to analyze in order to determine if two species are closely related?*
Which statement is an accurate description of genes?*
Base your answers to questions 13 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
In 2003, as a result of the Human Genome Project, the complete sequence of all the bases in human DNA was released to the public. Although knowing the entire sequence of bases has proven valuable, scientists are currently working to map genes. Mapping genes involves determining the exact location of each gene. Since much of human DNA does not code for a protein, it is challenging to figure out which segments are actual genes. Often, scientists look at the percent composition of bases in a segment of DNA. If the segment of DNA has a large percentage of C and G bases (together over 50%), it is likely that it is a gene and codes for a protein.
Is it likely this segment of DNA codes for a protein? Circle yes or no and support your answer. 
Circle one: Yes or No*
Base your answers to questions 14 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
DNA samples were taken from three different species and used to determine the amino acid sequence for a portion of a particular protein. The amino acids were then compared in order to determine which species were most closely related. Some of the information is shown on the table below.
TGA ACU THR AGA UCU SER
State one specific effect on the protein produced if an mRNA code is changed from AGU to AGA. *
Base your answers to questions 15 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.
Identify the type of building block represented by the letters A, B, and C.